However, little is currently known about functional neural correlates of forms of corporal punishment that are more socially normative in some countries, such as spanking.
The dimensional model predicts that the magnitude of these neural changes varies as a function of the severity of the threat involved.
More recently, some have argued that spanking may influence brain development in a similar manner as more extreme forms of maltreatment (e.g., Gershoff, 2016 ).
Spanking and other forms of corporal punishment are threatening experiences that cause fear, pain, and threat of harm to the child (Gershoff, 2002 ).
Consequently, spanking may influence neurodevelopmental processes in similar ways as more severe forms of maltreatment.
Despite the high prevalence and widespread social approval of spanking, developmental theories have long posited that spanking is associated with deleterious child outcomes (see Gershoff, 2002 ).
Alternatively, this finding may suggest that differences in salience network responses to threat cues following corporal punishment are more constrained than following more severe forms of violence. »